Saturday, May 23, 2020

Diversity Training in the Workplace Essay example

Table of Contents Abstract 4 Introduction 4 Gender Diversity 7 Diversity in Sexuality 8 Racial Diversity 10 Diversity in Age 11 Cultural Diversity 12 Religious Diversity 13 Importance of Diversity Training 18 Recommendations for Managers 22 Conclusion 26 References 28 Abstract This research paper addresses the importance of diversity training in the workplace. Having realized how pertinent workplace discrimination is globally, this paper will give a broad look into the various ways that diversity is displayed in the workplace. The diversity issues involving gender, sexuality, race, age, culture and religion will be explored,†¦show more content†¦It is believed that in order to change people, you have to change the way that the think. The general line of reasoning is that if we learn to incorporate each other’s diverse traits and characteristics in the workplace, we can then use these differences to foster an innovative environment, which will give the company a competitive advantage over the competitors that do not accept workforce diversity. According to the Allied Academies International Conference, â€Å"Diversity is rapidly becoming a common practice among companies due to the increasing number of minorities entering the job market today. As these groups become more prevalent throughout companies, upper-level employees are facing numerous challenges when determining what changes must take place to create a positive working environment for everyone. Management is responsible for the development and implementation of effective policies directly relating to diversity to ensure the acceptance of minorities into the workplace and to aid in minorities’ success through equal opportunities and treatme nt.† (Marcia L. James, 2001, Academy for Studies in International Business Proceedings) Gender Diversity Women account for half of the workforce today, but when looking at their current standings in the areas of salaries and career advancement, there seems to be a gap in comparison to men. It was in 1964, when the Civil Rights Act demanded equal employmentShow MoreRelatedTraining Guide For Diversity Within The Workplace Essay2207 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction This training guide for diversity in the workplace has been developed for business owners and management in, to help recognize and encourage cultural diversity in the workplace. It is important that business acknowledge economic , social contribution of diversity in the workplace and use the skills and views of today’s society. Diversity training will help improve customer service and competitiveness here in the U.S. and globally. We have a tradition in the U.S. for acknowledging theRead MoreDiversity Training And Its Effectiveness1240 Words   |  5 PagesDiversity may be defined as recognizing and respecting the similarities, differences and unique characteristics an individual employee contributes to the workplace. Diversity training and its effectiveness in the workplace has been met with differing conclusions as to the positive or negative impact this type of training may have on an organization. Today, change in the workplace is inevitable and diversity training in the workplace has become common across the globe. Companies now realize thatRead MoreWorkplace Diversity Within The Workplace865 Words   |  4 Pagesmarket today is workplace diversity. Workplace diversity is defined as all characteristics and experiences that defined each employee as individuals, but it can also be misunderstood as discrimination against employees. Diversity can include race, ethnicity, sex, religion, disability and sexu al orientation discrimination. One reason why workplace diversity is important is because when you respect your employees productivity rate rises and many companies do not know that. A diverse workplace targets toRead MoreDiversity And Public Administration By Harvey L. White And Rice1254 Words   |  6 Pages In the book entitled, Diversity and Public Administration by Harvey L. White and Mitchell F. Rice , White and Rice (2010) stated challenges will form from changes in demographics which are affecting the demands of delivery and visions of products and services. Since 2000, minority population has increased dramatically. In result of minority population increasing, public organizations have a more diverse work environment. In the workplace, diversity can be a benefit. According to the article entitledRead MoreManagement : Management Careers And Diversity Essay1744 Words   |  7 PagesManagement Careers and Diversity Introduction Ongori and Agolla (2007) state that managing workforce diversity in an organization is a complex phenomenon. They suggest that with the current organizational transformations being implemented across the globe, management of workforce diversity cannot be downplayed. Diversity in the workforce is based on the acknowledgement of the reality that people are different in more than one way, mainly in terms of culture and ethnicity, personality, religionRead MoreManaging Diversity Within The Workplace1605 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract- Managing Diversity in the workplace requires a lot of focus, training, and time. This paper gives an insight into the world of management and how diversity plays a big part. It explores the key benefits to putting emphasis on diversity and also how not putting emphasis on diversity could hurt your business. This paper also gives examples on how to go about managing diversity in the workplace. With proper focus on managing diversity, your organization can b e at a big advantage. I. INTRODUCTIONRead MoreWhy A Diverse Workplace Matters?1093 Words   |  5 Pagesvarious scholars has found that a diverse workplace, if managed properly, can do wonders for the success of an organization. Diversity means differences due to race, gender, ethnic groups, age, personality, tenure, organizational function, educational background, etc. Diversity involves how people perceive themselves and how they perceive others. These perceptions affect their interactions. Why a diverse workplace matters? / Benefits of workplace diversity An organization’s success and competitivenessRead MoreEssay Workplace Diversity1577 Words   |  7 PagesDiversity is the uniqueness which every employee brings to the workplace in an organization or establishment. Examples of differences include nationality, belief, disabilities, physical appearance, race, gender, age, educational background, sexual orientation, and work experience, social and family status. At the workplace, valuing diversity means creating a work environment that respects and includes individual variation by maximizing the potential of all employees or in which every employee feelsRead MoreManaging A Diverse Workforce, Sexual Harassment, And Human Resource Management1502 Words   |  7 Pageschapter provided an introduction and overview of the importance of human resources in an organization. Human resource managers are responsible for recruiting, hiring, training, and developing employees. A critical organizational function for human resource management is selecting the right employees coupled with onboarding and training. Additionally, the human resource manager and staff work to ensure all laws and regulations are established and followed to protect both the organization and individualRead MoreThe Best Practices Diversity Management And How Do They Improve Organizational Performance?924 Words   |  4 Pagespractices in diversity management and how do they improve organizational performance? Introduction As we enter the new phase of modern labor, diversity in the workforce is rapidly increasing. This wave of multiculturalism is here to stay and cannot be ignored by the present workers or students that are preparing to take charge of the future workforce. It is in need of attention in order to uphold the well-being and success of businesses and organizations all over the world. Diversity The

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Child Abuse Prevention - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 923 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/03/28 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Child Abuse Essay Did you like this example? Sophia enters the house with a blank look on her face and trembling with fear. She hesitantly hands her mother a note from her guidance counselor then steadies herself for the forceful assault. She shields her head with her tiny hands as she agonizingly awaits the beating. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Child Abuse Prevention" essay for you Create order Her mother realizes how she is frightening her daughter so, she antagonizes her further by hurling insults at the child. Sophia sprints out of the house and runs into oncoming traffic. Her mother follows closely behind, pulls her out of harms way, and then slaps her down onto the pavement. Sophia strikes her head on the sidewalk and is knocked unconscious. A witness of the brutal occurrence calls the police, and an ambulance is dispatched to the residence. The poor child is taken to the hospital where she later dies from her injuries. The pain and trauma this child experienced represents a great percentage of child victims in American culture today. Unfortunately, this abuse occurs in the United States regularly thus causing dramatic economic, political, and social changes within our borders. Argument Child abuse has an extensive past and has possibly existed since the beginning of time. Children born in times past were property and therefore the laws did not protect them from being harmed. It was not until the 1870s that child maltreatment caught the nations attention when eight-year-old New York native Mary Ellen Wilson was suffering beatings at the hands of her foster parent. When Mary Ellens case went before a judge, her foster mom received a one-year jail sentence for assault and battery. This case produced enough concern over child abuse that the state of New York formed the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in 1874. Cruelty to children occurs when a parent or caregiver, whether through action or failing to act, causes injury, death, emotional harm or risk of serious harm to a child under the age of eighteen. (Understanding social problems) The mistreatment of a child is anything that places a youth at harm or at risk of being harmed. It is also a vi olence that could leave a child mentally and physically scarred for the rest of their lives. There are several types of abuse which include emotional, physical, and sexual to name a few. In todays world, one out of five children have experienced an abuse and on average, between four and seven children die at the hands of their caregivers daily.(www.childhelp.org) Yearly, over three-million reports of child abuse are made in the United States which affects Americans economically in enormous numbers. According to a press release by the Centers for Disease Control, the total lifetime costs of new cases of child maltreatment will cost taxpayers $124 billion dollars, sexually-transmitted diseases will cost over $1.5 billion attributed to child sexual abuse, and $2 billion of teen pregnancy credited to child sexual abuse. Although some costs are straightforward and directly related to abuse, such as hospital costs for medical treatment of injuries sustained as a result of physical abuse a nd foster care costs resulting from the removal of children when they cannot remain safely with their families. Other costs, less directly tied to the incidence of abuse, include lower academic achievement, adult criminality, and possibly lifelong mental health problems. The emotional price paid by an abused child is immeasurable. It is a subtraction of faith, trust, and self-worth that robs their hearts account from the moment of abuse until a time when therapy, support, and love replace what was taken from them. Surveys taken in North America that ask adults to recall their childhood show that almost forty percent of girls in their youth were subjected to emotional abuse before their teenage years. Different forms of abuse are often overlooked by family members, friends, and many health professionals. Some may feel it is not their business to interfere in personal situations while others fear retaliation from caregivers. Also, harming children may have serious future consequences for its victims, including delays in physical growth, emotional instability, and personality development. Vindictiveness to youngsters has several causes that initially stem from the parent or guardian being abused themselves during their childhood. Often, child survivors choose not tell anyone because they assume there is nothing they can do to stop the abuser or they do not know how. Thankfully, the media and political figures has played a vital role in the construction of child abuse advocacy. The issue has raised awareness across a range of political debates, news programs, and films thereby reaching a variety of audiences. National strategies and goals has also been set in place in order to combat child abuse. Many faith-based organizations, law officials, public groups, schools, and local and state legislatures have all taken a stand to help make their communities aware of different types of abuse by creating forums, websites, editorial letters, and so forth. Conclusion Child abuse prevention is not a matter of caregivers improving their parenting skills, but rather is about creating an environment in which society works together to end the problem. It also remains important to remind Americans of the negative economic, social, and, political impact of abuse. Child maltreatment are serious threats to a juveniles healthy cognitive development, self-worth, and physical growth. Parental figures can accept personal responsibility for ending cruelty by providing a provision to each other and offering protection to all children within their family and community. When the problem is owned by all people and societies, prevention will evolve, and fewer children will remain in jeopardy.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Importance Of Motivation In The Language Classroom Education Essay Free Essays

string(26) " that it may be retained\." Motivation is one of the biggest thrusts of larning a 2nd linguistic communication and it is a cardinal portion of what a instructor faces every twenty-four hours. The English course of study for primary and secondary school clearly states that it is a instructor ‘s duty to heighten and excite each and every pupil ‘s will to larn and to turn. ‘Being able to promote pupils and derive support from co-workers and parents is an built-in portion of the function of MFL instructors. We will write a custom essay sample on The Importance Of Motivation In The Language Classroom Education Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now ‘ ( Teaching Agency, 2012 ) The MFL topic has n’t played such an of import function in the National Curriculum in the yesteryear that might be due that taking a linguistic communication as a GCSE topic is and was non mandatory. What is the EBC? ‘The EBacc was introduced as a public presentation step in the 2010 public presentation tabular arraies. The step recognises where students have secured a ‘C ‘ class or better in GCSEs or accredited international GCSEs ( iGCSEs ) across a nucleus of topics – English, mathematics, two scientific disciplines, history or geographics and a linguistic communication ( including Modern Foreign Languages ( MFL ) or ancient linguistic communications ) . ‘ ( Sam Clemens, 2011 ) However, surveies found that with the debut of the new English Baccalaureate Certificates ( EBCs ) pupils ‘ motive to larn a linguistic communication could alter. It seems to me that at the students do non see the intent for larning a linguistic communication as the general premise is â€Å" every one speaks English † ‘For many in the UK, English is their first and lone linguistic communication. On evidences of functionality, why would they desire to acquire their caputs around the grammar, vocabulary and literature of aliens? They comfort themselves with the belief that â€Å" everyone speaks English † – when that ‘s non true of 75 % of the universe ‘s population. ‘ ( The Observer, Sunday 26 June 2011 ) This paper will research motive in the secondary school category room with the focal point specifically on larning a 2nd linguistic communication, L2. First I will research what is meant by Motivation, I believe it is utterly of import that the reader understand what is meant with the term motive as this term is examined throughout this research paper. The 2nd portion of the essay will analyse motivational factors and motivational jobs. It will look at what motivates human existences and what does non actuate them. This is valuable as it is portion of a instructor ‘s tool box if he/she wants to act upon their pupils ‘ motive. In decision this essay will look at motivational schemes a instructor can use to act upon pupils ‘ motive. What is meant with the term Motivation? To reply the inquiry of what is motive 1 has to detect that the squad is really various. The Latin verb â€Å" motivus † , a signifier of movere which means to travel and as a consequence is related to the importance of motive. Generally Motivation is described as end orientated behavior. A definition of the word motive might be â€Å" factors within a human being or other animate being that arouse and direct goal-oriented behavior † ( britannica.com, Motivation ) . Gardner and Masgoret put forward that Motivation refers to ‘goal-directed behavior ( californium, Heckhausen, 1991 ) , and when one is trying to mensurate motive, attending, can be directed toward a Numberss of characteristics of the person. ‘ ( Gardner and Masgoret, 2003 ) A broad scope of literature has been written on that subject and there are many different thoughts out at that place on what Motivates people and pupils ‘ . Every homo being has different committedness demands. Those need differ from single to single as everybody has their single desires to actuate themselves. Depending on how motivated we are, it can find the attempt we put into our work and hence increase the criterion of the productiveness. Motivation has been contemplated as one of the most of import constituents lending to linguistic communication larning success. Research over the last decennaries has over and over once more underlined the of import place of motive in successful linguistic communication acquisition. ( Gardner A ; Lambert, Deci and Ryan, Ushioda, Dornyei ) . Two of the taking theories covering with 2nd linguistic communication acquisition were proposed by Stephen Krashen and J.H. Schumann. Krashen ‘s thought was that linguistic communication acquisition is a subconscious and natural procedure during which the scholar improves with real-life pattern. â€Å" Grammar-translation violates about every constituent of the Input Hypothesis, and it is hence predicted that this method will hold the consequence of seting the pupil â€Å" on the defensive † ( Stephen D Krashen, P 129, 1982 ) While Schumann ‘s socialization theoretical account high spots an integration of the scholars ‘ mark linguistic communication, civilization and community. Harmonizing to Schumann the scholar regards the TL talkers as a mention group whose life manner and values he consciously or unconsciously desires to follow. ( Schumann, P 340, 1986 ) Both theories can be applied in the schoolroom for a positive consequence. What does Motivation intend for the linguistic communication schoolroom? I believe it is highly of import to understand how motive works in the schoolroom. There are endless processs instructors use to carry through coveted effects from their pupils, but there are overall forms these motivational tools follow. In ordination for instructors to convey with their pupils, they must place with their demands on an idiosyncratic footing. This purpose is matching to Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs, which states basic demands must be met to obtain rich motive. These demands, in go uping order, are as follows: Physiological Needs, Safety and Security Needs, Love and Belongingness Needs, Self-Worth and Self-Esteem Needs, the Need to Know and Understand, Aesthetic Needs, the Need for Self-Actualization ( D. Martin and K. Joomis, Constructing Teachers: A Constructivist Approach to Introducing Education, pp. 72-75.1997 ) . The most of import point about Maslow theory is for pupils to hold a educational end and that acquisition is taking topographic point. Another of import factor is to do this freshly gained cognition and information purposeful every bit good as meaningful to pupils so that it may be retained. You read "The Importance Of Motivation In The Language Classroom Education Essay" in category "Essay examples" Besides pupils should see the intent for retaining the cognition and how they could utilize it throughout their lives. An indispensable factor involved in run intoing these ends is motive. If the pupils are unmotivated in one manner or another, it is likely that barely any acquisition will take topographic point or it is really likely that cognition will non be retained. This theory had a great impact on educational constructions. In his ulterior old ages, Maslow realised that an environmental stipulation of stimulation, or challenge, was needed to actuate persons. Maslow ‘s first demand of physiological satisfactoriness is really basic. This inquiry merely asks if pupils are in a comfy and safe environing for their acquisition. In apparent English, are pupils hungry, excessively cold, excessively hot and is the environment exciting to larn in? If a pupil ‘s physical surrounding does non fit decently with the pupil ‘s demand, he/she will non be encouraged to larn or to make any higher demand. Similarly, if pupils do non experience safe ( via the 2nd demand, security ) , they will non be able to concentrate larning something. Consistent outlooks and the accepting and non-judgmental attitude of the instructors can besides bring forth pupils who feel secured and confident in their instructors. On the juncture that a pupil feels threatened by another pupil or by the instructor, he/she may non come on every bit good as hoped. Furthermore in many instances, he/she reverts from the instruction instead than reacting to it. In order to decrease feelings of menace, a instructor can attest feelings of protection and love, which is the 3rd hierarchical demand. The demand for the sense of love and belonging in pupils are of import either in the teacher-student relationships or in the student-student relationships. A instructor ‘s personality should be empathic, considerate and interested in the persons, patient, carnival, holding positive attitude and being good hearer. Teachers who have these features will supply the pupils with more assurance and accordingly students will be able to larn and better better in their surveies. With respect to the pupil to student relationships instructors should promote peer tutoring or category meetings. By holding good relationships with instructors and equals, pupils will hold fulfilled their demand to belong, and besides have the feeling of being cared and loved. In Maslow ‘s 4th demand, respect, a instructor must be careful non to overload on both unfavorable judgment and congratulations. Students must experience as if they deserve congratulations in order for them to absorb difficult work with congratulations. Teachers besides should non bury that unfavorable judgment, even when applied right, can damage students ‘ feelings and can make a deficiency of motive. Students must experience the demand of self-respect and to be respected by the others. Teachers should get down develop new cognition based on the background cognition, they besides have to assist to guarantee success ( scaffolding ) and to gait instructions to suit single demands. Teachers should besides concentrate on the person ‘s strengths and assets when be aftering lessons and transporting them out. To fulfill the following demand of understanding and cognition, the instructors should let the pupils ‘ clip to research countries of wonder and to supply lessons that are intellectually disputing. By utilizing the find attack subjects, the pupils can larn to be independent and larn from assorted angles. By acquiring involved intellectually, the pupils can fulfill their demand to carry through their demand to research, discover and work out new things. Teachers must besides be careful to asseverate authorization ; nevertheless, they must besides esteem pupils for their attempts. The demand for aesthetic is besides really of import for the pupils. By forming schoolroom stuffs in a neat and appealing manner, the pupils will be attracted to larn about the things related to the stuffs. Pleasing, good maintained and fresh smelling schoolrooms with attractive wall hangings can make stableness in the pupils who will experience comfy to analyze in such surrounding. The highest demand in the Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands is the demand for self realization. Teachers anticipating the pupils to make their best will force the pupils to use their ain potency and at the same clip to fulfill their ain demand of self fulfillment. By giving the pupils freedom to research and detect on their ain, the instructors are able to do larning more meaningful for the pupils A pupil who fails to accomplish any of the old four demands may non be motivated to go on in the academic scene because of the intensions of defeat and misgivings in the instruction system. While Maslow ‘s hierarchy makes sense from a sociology point of position, there are defects in his theory. When Maslow undertook his research he did n’t take 3rd universe states in consideration. There frequently safety is non given or their might non even experience comfy with in their environment, nevertheless, acquisition is still taking topographic point, as pupils are motivated by other factors. Thus might be hope of a better life, being cognizant that geting a 2nd linguistic communication will let them to go forth their milieus one twenty-four hours. Even in the UK as informant and my first school arrangement the first basic demand of Physiological Need was non fulfilled. Their some pupils came to school without holding had breakfast in the forenoon. The environment they had to larn in was non in my point of you educational exciting as Windowss could be closed or opened. Therefore, frequently pupils were to hot or excessively cold. However and this is of import to indicate out larning took topographic point. Therefore, the inquiry arouses why is that so if the first demand wa s n’t fulfilled why did n’t pupils make a higher degree anyhow? As mentioned before a broad scope of literature has been written on Motivation and there are many different thoughts out at that place on what Motivates pupils ‘ . Every pupil has different demands. Those need differ from single to single as everybody has their single desires to actuate themselves. Gardner and Lambert ( 1959, 1972 ) have done radical work to look at the nature of motive specifically to linguistic communication surveies. Gardner high spots in a paper from 2007 ‘that Motivation to larn a 2nd linguistic communication is non a simple concept. It can non be measured by one graduated table ; possibly the whole scope of motive can non be assessed by even three or four graduated tables. It decidedly can non be assessed by simply inquiring persons to give grounds for why they think larning a linguistic communication is of import to them. ‘ ( Gardner, 2007 ) In 1982 Gardner and Lambert ( 1972:3 ) defined two different types of motive: 1 ) A Instrumental motive: the desire to larn a linguistic communication because it would carry through certain useful ends, such as acquiring aA occupation, go throughing an scrutiny, etc. 2 ) A Integrative motive: Gardner ‘s position is based on that the ‘ integratively motivated pupil is one who is motivated to larn the 2nd linguistic communication, has an openness to designation with the other linguistic communication community, and has a favourable attitude towards the acquisition state of affairs. ‘ ( Gardner and Masgoret, 2003 ) Differentiations have been made in the literature between ‘integrative † and ‘instrumental ‘ motive. However, Penny suggests ( 2005:276 ) that, research since so has cast uncertainty on the application of this claim to foreign linguistic communication scholars in general.A In any instance, at least one other survey has indicated that it may be impossible in pattern to separate between the two. An alternate differentiation, perchance more utile for instructors, is that between ‘intrinsic ‘ motive ( the impulse to prosecute in the acquisition activity for its ain interest ) and ‘extrinsic ‘ ( motive that is derived from external inducements ) . A Human existences in general are so different from each other. This does n’t merely use to people but to pupils besides. Different pupils get motivated by different factors, therefore might be motivated per se or extrinsically. Up to a certain age pupils tend to acquire motivated by the possibility of having a dainty. Those dainty could be in the signifier of Sweets or more often used as witnessed by myself merit spines. When I was a kid within the German instruction system we would have small casts in the signifier of bees in the dorsum of our prep journal. We besides received classs from the first twelvemonth ahead. This besides was extremely actuating. Even so it merely extrinsically motivated us as pupils until we saw the intent of acquisition and our motive changed into intrinsic motive. We both types of motive I can see flaws. What happens if no wages system is introduces with in the schoolroom environment through classs, Sweets or virtues spines will larn still take topographic point? And on the other manus how do you actuate a kid to prosecute in larning for its ain interest? Captured within extrinsic and intrinsic motive are the thoughts of positive and negative support. These incentives are normally used in schoolrooms in order to arouse a desire to accomplish in pupils. Positive support is a manner of adding a enjoyable experience to a pupils head in order to prosecute that student. Praise is a common signifier of this ; a instructor who decently utilizes congratulations commends the student for his or her peculiar piece of work, non personal qualities that make the work particular. However, a instructor must be every bit sensitive to different civilizations as to the bulk civilization. Hitz and Driscoll ( 1989 ) point out that pupils from different socioeconomic categories, ability degrees, and genders may non react in the same manner to praise and may do pupils experience less worthy if they do non invariably receive congratulations. Self-government Theory Deci and Ryan ( 1985 ) introduced self-government theory and claimed that motive has three orientations viz. amotivation, extrinsic, and intrinsic. Amotivation takes topographic point when pupils do non value the activity that they are making, do non experience competent, and do non believe that the activity will profit them or take to a desired result ( Deci A ; Ryan, 2000 ) . Extrinsic and intrinsic orientations are distinguished by whether the wages received is external such as having good classs or avoiding penalty, or internal, such as enjoyment and satisfaction in making a certain activity ( Dornyei, 1994 ) . When pupils are motivated because of a wages or effects that they will have for making or non making an activity, they are said to be extrinsically motivated. Deci and Ryan ( 2000 ) put extrinsic motive into four ordinances harmonizing to their degree of orientation toward self-government. External ordinance is the least self-determined extrinsic motive. Students who are externally regulated are those who do an activity due to an external wages or other considerations. The following degree is introjected ordinance. Students in this degree of extrinsic motive do non bask making an activity but they have a system of wages and penalty that is internally governed. The 3rd degree is identified ordinance where pupils are more self-determined. Students in this degree are engaged in an activity because they perceived that the activity is valuable to them. Finally, the most self-determined of extrinsic motive is integrated ordinance. This ordinance is performed by pupils who do non merely make the activity because the societal value says it is of value to them, but they do it because they themselves value the activity. This orientation resembles Do rnyeiaˆYs ideal ego ( 2005 ) in that all the properties that one would wish to possess can work as a really powerful incentive. It is besides really similar to intrinsic motive, yet at this phase pupils do non needfully bask making the undertakings. In some state of affairss, nevertheless, congratulations is non appropriate to supervise and modify pupils? behaviors. In general, behavior and attitude are highly of import aspects in the kingdom of motive, and instructors must be cognizant of agencies to halt behavior that is harmful to his, or other pupils larning. In some instances, the usage of negative support is appropriate. The construct of negative support is hard to learn and larn because the word negative confuses the significance, but the construct refers to beef up [ ing ] a behavior because a negative status is stopped or avoided as a effect of the behaviour. ? ( Levine, 1999 ) . In the schoolroom, this would be warning a pupil to halt a riotous behavior, such as researching inappropriate web sites on the Internet. Rather than utilize a wages to corrupt pupils to remain on undertaking, instructors can take away a positive force to take away the negative action. Many pupils are motivated by the chance of delighting the instructor, hence avoiding negative support, which can be abashing to a pupil. These general forms of motive are utile in the schoolroom, but instructors must besides be cognizant of a altering society in order to provide to pupils demands. In today ‘s universe where 10 twelvemonth olds can easy pull strings through the cyberspace, instructors must he trained in ways to use engineering in a schoolroom scene Autonomy Ushioda ( 2001 ) claimed that liberty is the demand to experience volitional. It is the province in which pupils perceive themselves as holding some picks in making a certain undertaking including a pick non to make the undertaking. Autonomy is one of the metacognitive elements that are needed in motivational behavior when acquisition. It is an attitude towards larning where pupils are responsible for their ain acquisition. It has been closely tied with the fulfillment of one ‘s demands that creates intrinsic motive ( Deci A ; Ryan, 1985 ) . Dickinson ( 1995 ) argued that it leads to a better and more effectual accomplishment. Dornyei and Csizer ( 1998 ) listed advancing studentsaˆY liberty as one of the Ten Commandment that instructors have to maintain in head in heightening studentsaˆY motive. Motivational Schemes Last, Dornyei and Csizer ( 1998:215 ) performed an extended study where they investigated how 200 Magyar instructors of English worked with actuating their pupils during category. They came up with 10 of the most used schemes and these can be seen as a concise overview of what has antecedently been presented: 1. â€Å" Set a personal illustration with your ain behavior † . If the instructor acts as he/she would desire the pupils to move, the opportunities are greater that they really will so by demoing that the topic is merriment, interesting and of import this attitude might be transmitted to the pupils. 2. â€Å" Create a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere in the schoolroom † . If the ambiance is pleasant, the pupils are more likely to hold the bravery to show themselves in a 2nd linguistic communication, something which can frequently experience intimidating for many. 3. â€Å" Present the undertakings decently † If the undertakings are presented decently the pupils are less likely to happen content and assignments to be confounding and thereby lose motive to work because they do non understand what to make. 4. â€Å" Develop a good relationship with the scholars † . If the instructor has a good relationship with the pupils, they are more likely to experience comfy and unafraid during category. This will so increase the opportunities of the pupils experiencing motivated to larn the topic. 5. â€Å" Increase the scholars ‘ lingual assurance † . If the pupils ‘ assurance is increased, they are more likely to experience it is deserving their while to analyze and larn. Without assurance, the pupils tend to believe that it does non count whether they study or non, they will non win in the terminal anyhow. 6. â€Å" Make the linguistic communication classes interesting † . If the content of the English categories are perceived as interesting by the pupils, they are more likely to desire to larn it. 7. â€Å" Promote scholar liberty † . If the pupils learn how to work by themselves during category and to win after holding taken charge of an assignment themselves, this might do them see that they accomplished this by themselves and thereby actuate them to go on acquisition. 8. â€Å" Personalize the acquisition procedure † . If the acquisition procedure is personalized, which in this instance refers to the utilizing of relevant stuff and the integrating of the pupils ‘ ain personalities in the content of the topic, the pupils are more likely to encompass what is to be learned. 9. â€Å" Increase the scholars ‘ goal-orientedness † . If the instructor helps the pupils to put ends for themselves of what they want to carry through and larn, it becomes easier for the pupils to concretize how they need to travel about it in order to make the end. This manner, a end does non resemble an unsurmountable obstruction which might interfere with the pupils ‘ motive to larn an L2. 10. â€Å" Familiarize scholars with the mark linguistic communication civilization † . If the pupils know about the English states and their civilizations, the pupils ‘ attitudes towards the linguistic communication might better and thereby rendering the linguistic communication more interesting and actuating to larn. How to cite The Importance Of Motivation In The Language Classroom Education Essay, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Human Resource Management Hiring Process

Question: Discuss about theHuman Resource Managementfor Hiring Process. Answer: Introduction Human resource management is a term used to describe official policies and systems strategized for management of people within an organization to help in the maximization of their performance and effectiveness so as to achieve the optimum productivity of the organization. Generally the strategies are always philosophical. Job description could be set, a hiring process designed where interviews is done to pick the best qualified, the on job trainings are performed, and core values of the organization upheld (Johnson, 2009). Team work, commitment and respect to fellow employees in human resource management is always encouraged therefore disciplinary measures are undertaken in case of non-adherence. Remunerations have also been devised depending on the job group category within a specified organization. Human resource management in the current organizational systems is still performing similar functions though with a few improvements (Towers, 2007). Applications at Work Place Looking at the applications to the workplace, there are five major processes in which human resources management dominates the responsibilities. First, there is recruitment and selection .This is the process of choosing the best qualified to fill the vacant positions in an organization. The vacancy can be as a result of newly created post or refill. It's a continuous process due to transfers, promotions, retirements, death and even termination of the employee due to disciplinary cases (Mark, 2014). Recruitment and selection is important because it helps in the reduction of employment of incompetency, under qualified or unmotivated personnel. This is best done when positions are advertised and interviews performed. For me as an employee it helps me get satisfied and try advancing for promotions. Secondly, orientation is a process carried out by the human resource management to the newly recruited personnel. It helps in adjustment within the new job. The employee gets to familiarize with the objectives and goals of the organization. One gets to know duties assigned to them, the exact job description, how that particular position and other positions are related in the organization. As an employee orientation will clarify my active role therefore aids in my planning how to achieve the short term and long term goals required of me. Maintaining good working conditions for the employees is another vital process of the human resource management. Environmental conditions regarding their health and safety is vital. Offering sick leaves and putting in place protective measures. Working environment is made admirable when there is motivation (Mathis, 2005). This can be monetary or non-monetary. In monetary, when the salaries and remuneration are fair enough then the employees output increases due to satisfaction .rewarding outstanding performers creates a healthy competition. In non-monetary includes protecting against bullying and harassment, being friendly and approachable, appreciating when necessary. As an individual when my welfare is taken care of I feel more energized and motivated to work. HRM assists in managing employees and labor relations. Unions are put in place to help fight for well-being of the workers, help solve conflict and for communication. The employees voice is heard and industrial relations maintained. As an employee, I can express my dissatisfaction without fear of being penalized (Klerck, 2009). It also enhances training and development .New skills arise day to day so it's important to perform on job trainings .The human resource is concerned with providing leadership training and in some cases encouraging growth and development professionally by providing tuition reimbursement programs. My take is that I'll feel more encouraged to study if there's support. Analysis of Transformational Role of HRM In the recent days the human resource management has not only undergone transformation itself but has also transformed organizations in myriad ways. For instance, it has led to merger and acquisitions which involves transactions where ownership of the entire or specified units are combined or transferred (Klerck, 2009). This advocates for growth and change of the nature of business competitive state. In merger we consolidate two entities into one while in acquisition we transfer the ownership to another entity. This reveals how these roles are transformational as opposed to being transactional There is also the aspect of talent management anticipation of the human capital which is required for effective organizational performance. The approach is vital since it is a strategic workforce planning that links the business strategy into sense making (Mark, 2014). This helps unearth benefits in market capitalization, productivity, revenue, and customer satisfaction. It is achieved not only through hiring qualified personnel but also retaining them. Lastly, good HRM strategies enhance succession planning (Judy, 2014). Due to retirements and deaths, it is important to identify leaders who can replace the present ones in case of such occurrences. The strategy involves identification of specific backup individuals. The idea is transformational as it encourages the would-be leaders to improve their output which in turn upholds organizational performance. Generally it is profitable to recruit and develop employees from within the organization as this enhances consistency and ease of m anaging transitions. Conclusion Due to the aspect of diversity organizations are learning to adapt to multiculturalism as it helps gather ideas widely. Through proper HRM strategies, various religious and ethnic groups are addressed and made to have a sense of belonging even at the workplace. This helps in reduction of ethnic conflicts and encourages positive growth (Towers, 2007). Managers ought to have communication, negotiation, and problem solving skills in addition to being discreet and ethical. This is because successful HRM revolves around these critical skills. References Johnson, P. (2009). HRM in changing organizational contexts. London: Routledge Judy, B. (2014). Human resource management. Harlow: Pearson Education limited. Klerck, G. (2009). Industrial relations and human resource management. London: Routledge. Mark, O. (2014). What works at Work. New York: The star bank Press. Mathis, R. (2005). Human Resource Management. California: Thomson Publishers. Towers, D. (2007). Human resource management essays. Journal of Human Resource, 2(2), pp. 22-26

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Super Volcanoes informative paper free essay sample

What f I told you that something like the volcano that is thought to have killed all but 15. 000 members of the human population 74,000 years ago is underneath the US. as I speak? Lucky for all of us humans, we may have to face another volcano like this soon, since there is a historically destructive one in Yellowstone National Park. The volcano that possibly killed a majority of the human species and the volcano that currently resides In Yellowstone are both a special kind of volcano called d super volcano, which you will be Informed about today. A super volcano is defined as a volcano capable of spewing more the 1000 km3 of ash, pumice, or lava when it erupts. -according to the US geological survey, Volcano eruptions are measured using a unit called the VEI. To be exact the VEI is used to represent the explosiveness, amount of material ejected, and height of column from a volcano. We will write a custom essay sample on Super Volcanoes informative paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page To be a super volcano, a volcano must have a VEI of 8. A volcano with this much power doesnt usually look Ilke an average volcano. Instead of a cone shape, the lava In a super volcano resides underneath the earth and the volcano resembles a arge crater with a slight bulge in the center. This large crater around the center ot the volcano is a caldera. A caldera is a large basin-shaped volcanic depression resulting from the explosion of a center of a volcano. When a super volcano erupts, a few things happern First, a magma pool must form underground. The magma rises to the earths crust but cannot break through, causing pressure. When the pressure becomes too great, the crust bursts, allowing the lava to escape. The area where the lava resided becomes the caldera. There are more than 1900 active volcanoes In the world today according to After erupuons Ilke this In the past, the world has been thrown into a state of global cooling, like the ice-age. This is a volcano with the potential to wipe out a good portion of the human race. However, scientists assure us that we have nothing to worry about. They monitor activity at Yellowstone. and have found no evidence to suggest that there will be another eruption in the near future. Even if Yellowstone did erupt soon, theres no guarantee that it would be on Of2 70,000 years ago, according to the US geological Survey. In summary, a Super volcano is a volcano capable of emitting more the 1000 km3 of ash, pumice, or lava when it erupts, and having a rating higher than VEI 8. A super volcano is characterized by a caldera resulting from past eruptions. The most commonly known super volcano is in Yellowstone National Park, and has had 3 large, significant eruptions in the past 2 million years. One day, it will erupt with the magnitude of past eruptions yet again, and it will be devastating. All we can do is observe the volcano and possibly have a warning when it changes life as we know it.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Complete Study Guide SAT US History Subject Test

Complete Study Guide SAT US History Subject Test SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Alexander Hamilton, Lucretia Mott, Frederick Douglass, and Rosa Parks- these are a few of the important historical figures you might encounter on the SAT US History Subject Test. This complete study guide will tell you everything you need to know for SAT US History, how you can prepare, and where to find the best practice questions to start prepping. To help you find the exact info on the US History Subject Test that you're looking for, here's a table of contents so you can easily jump to the section you want: Format of US History Subject Test Types of Questions on US History Subject Test Concepts Tested on US History Subject Test Where to Find Practice Questions and Tests How to Study for the US History Subject Test Test-Taking Tips When to Take the US History Subject Test What Is the Format of the US History Subject Test? Like all Subject Tests, SAT US History is 60 minutes. Within that hour, it asks you 90 multiple-choice questions. Clearly, you'll have to develop your skills in answering questions quickly and efficiently! There are five answer choices per question, and the questions generally fall into three main types. What Types of Questions Are On the Test? The three main types of questions on the SAT US History are Recall questions, Analysis questions, and Using Data questions. Recall Questions Recall questions are relatively straightforward. They test your knowledge of specific facts, terms, and concepts. The following is a typical example of a "recall" question: One purpose of the Marshall Plan of 1948 was to A) rebuild European economies to make communism less appealing. B) aid the depressed agricultural economies of Latin American nations. C) aid communist nations that would agree to embrace democracy. D) give military aid to those nations resisting communist subversion. E) help the peoples of Asia establish heavy industries. This question doesn't ask you to analyze or use data- either you have knowledge about the Marshall Plan of 1948 or you're out of luck (though you might be able to use the year, 1948, to make an educated guess). The correct answer is A) rebuild European economies. Analysis Questions Analysis questions also require your knowledge of a time period, important figures, or notable events, but they go one step further by asking you to apply that knowledge to analyze or interpret presented information, such as a quotation, map, graph, or cartoon. For instance, the following question gives a quote from the 1840's and asks you what idea it expresses, rather than simply asking for a description of the idea itself. "If the Creator had separated Texas from the Union by mountain barriers, the Alps or the Andes, there might be plausible objections; but He has planned down the whole [Mississippi] Valley including Texas, and united every atom of the soil and every drop of the water of the mighty whole. He has linked their rivers with the great Mississippi, and marked and united the whole for the dominion of one government, the residence of one people." This quotation from the 1840s can be viewed as an expression of A) The New Nationalism B) popular sovereignty C) Manifest Destiny D) the Good Neighbor policy E) the frontier thesis You can see how this question requires you to interpret a quotation and place it in context of a historical trend. The correct answer for this (wildly outdated) quotation is C) Manifest Destiny. Using Data Questions The third type of question asks you to relate given data to history or to evaluate it. Data can be anything from a chart to a graph to a picture, like this famous image: Rosie the Riveter is, of course, referring to A) the contribution of women to the defense industry. Answering these recall, analysis, and data questions on the SAT US History calls upon the following skills. Anticipated Skills on the SAT US History These anticipated skills go along with the three types of questions. They are Historical concepts, cause-effect relationships, geography, and other data that you need for understanding major historical developments Concepts of historical analysis Ability to use knowledge to interpret data in maps, graphs, charts, and cartoons You can probably see how these skills will be applied to recall, analysis, and using data questions. Now that you're familiar with the types of questions you'll see and the skills you need to answer them, what about the content on the test? Just how much US history do you need to know? What Does the US History Test Cover? The US History Subject Test ranges over several hundred years, from pre-Columbian history to the American Revolution to the Industrial Revolution to the present. Most of the focus is on the years after 1790, though there is a small portion that has to do with earlier history. The exam includes political, economic, social, and cultural history, as well as foreign policy. Political and social history are emphasized more than the others. The College Board gives the following breakdown of material and time periods: Political history 31–35% Economic history 13–17% Social history 20–24% Intellectual and cultural history 13–17% Foreign policy 13–17% Periods % of Test Pre-Columbian history to 1789 20% 1790 to 1898 40% 1899 to the present 40% US History Subject Test Prep Materials Now that you're familiar with the content and format of the test, let's talk about where you can find high-quality practice questions. Then we'll discuss the best ways to study effectively and strategies for succeeding on the test. Test Prep Books Official practice questions are always the gold standard when it comes to books for SAT test prep, so you can immediately look to the College Board. Their book includes two previously administered full-length practice tests, along with detailed answer explanations. While this book is a good review, it's definitely not a replacement for staying focused throughout US History class. You'll need a solid foundation of historical knowledge in order to use this book effectively. Books that offer a more detailed review of US History are Barron's and Princeton Review. Barron's has three full-length tests and a diagnostic test at the beginning to gauge your starting point. Its 40 or so chapters are divided by historical era. Two cons about Barron's: it gives so much information that you might be studying needless facts and figures, and a lot of students say its questions are unnecessarily complex. Since you probably don't have a ton of time for Subject Test prep, you want to make sure you're getting the best results from your study time. Princeton Review also gives a solid comprehensive overview, along with two full-length SAT US History practice tests in the book and an additional one online. It's a good resource in conjunction with your history class- just watch out for any questions that seem outdated. Starting out with official practice questions might help you develop your eye for this. Kaplan is another option, but it's not your best resource. A lot of the questions are just too easy, so you'll probably get an unrealistic idea of your score from using its practice tests. I would recommend Kaplan the least for truly preparing for the US History Subject Test. Finally, if you're taking AP US History around the same time as the SAT US History, you might want to check out No Bull Review: For Use with the AP US History Exam and SAT Subject Test. Keep in mind this book is not specific to the SAT Subject Test, but offers you strategies for combining your test prep, along with a review of history that will show up on both tests. To sum up, if you're studying with books, check out College Board first, then Barron's and/or Princeton Review. Kaplan is not that helpful. For those of you also taking AP US History, No Bull Review can be a good supplemental resource. What about online practice questions? Online Practice Questions Again, your first go-to should be College Board. Here it has 29 official practice questions and answer explanations. It also gives you some more practice questions and general advice in this PDF, though you'll have to self-correct and self-score them. This site, 4tests.com, has 34 decent practice questions. They are a good, quick review that you can do and see them scored automatically. Another site with a lot of online practice questions can be found here. It also has some helpful PDF downloads with key term glossaries and general review study guides. Finally, you can check out US history practice questions at Varsity Tutors which consists of several diagnostic tests for the US History Subject Test. Study Tips and Techniques for the US History Subject Test Whether you're using test prep books, online practice questions, or a combination, you want to make sure you're studying in the way that's most effective for you and your learning style. The following are some study techniques that will help you be truly ready for the SAT US History. #1: Keep Up in Class SAT US History covers a huge time period. It requires knowledge that spans several hundred years, and this knowledge takes time to learn, an entire year or more of studying US history in class. Keeping up in class is essential to building a strong foundation of knowledge, as well as the skills of analysis and data interpretation that will be called upon in the Subject Test. One way to keep yourself accountable would be to get an SAT US History test prep book in the beginning of the year, and use it for review as you go along through the course. This way you can reinforce the information and ensure that you can recall or apply it when answering Subject Test practice questions. Gradual review over the year will be hugely helpful, and then you can do some more focused studying a couple months before the test, and really ramp up your studying two to three weeks before. #2: Befriend the Practice Test Practice tests are the best way to get ready. They don't just help keep you sharp and able to recall content and apply your skills, but they'll also help you develop your time management and pacing. Remember, the test asks 90 questions in only 60 minutes! The Subject Tests don't change a huge deal from year to year, so any and all practice questions you can find will be helpful in some way (keeping in mind the recommendations I gave above). There's a huge difference between passive studying and active test-taking. Taking practice tests will put your knowledge into action, as well as help you gauge your progress and identify which areas you need to focus more on. #3: Score Your Practice Tests Make sure to score your tests and understand the answer explanations. If you make a mistake or don't know a question, you should write that one down in a notebook so you can go back to it and fill in the gaps in your knowledge. By periodically checking in throughout the year with SAT US History practice tests, you can gauge your progress and see your improvement over the year. Then you can really ramp it up in the weeks before the test. #4: Analyze Your Wrong Answers To repeat the point, you don't want to just score your test and move on. This score is a signal to you and what you know and what you need to learn. You should figure out why you missed the question. Was it lack of knowledge, a wrong guess, or carelessness? If the first, you should brush up on your understanding. Reread that section of history and take notes on it. If the second, work on refining your process of elimination skills. If you find yourself overly rationalizing or justifying an answer, it's probably a "distractor"- there's only one 100% correct answer choice. Figure out what was distracting you and get to the core of what the answer choices are communicating. Finally, if the error was due to carelessness, continued practicing will help you improve your ability to read and comprehend a question and answer it quickly and efficiently. That's why timing yourself is such a good idea when taking practice tests. Which leads me to my next suggestion... #5: Simulate Testing Conditions Practice tests will give you the best "real test" experience if you simulate the testing conditions you'll encounter on test day. Give yourself exactly 60 minutes, no more, no less, and sit in a quiet space with few distractions. After all your studying, you want to make sure you'll be able to get to all the questions and answer them thoroughly in the hour you'll be given. Apart from practice tests and class materials, are there any other approaches you can take to learning the material? #6: Get Creative In Your Studying History involves a ton of reading and note-taking. If you find yourself feeling disengaged, you might want to try other approaches to make history come to life and engage with it in ways that are interesting to you. Reading aloud or watching documentaries, like on American Experience, could be a good way to supplement your understanding throughout the year. Of course, these shouldn't be your main focus in the weeks leading up to the test, but try to find creative ways that will keep you interested in the people, places, and events of American history. Test-Taking Strategies for the US History Subject Test Beyond these study techniques, let's talk about some other important strategies you need to know to master the US History Subject Test. #1: Note the Chronological Order of Questions Questions on the US History Subject Test are grouped into 8 to 12 questions that go in chronological order. When a new grouping starts, you'll see a sharp change in the time period. Understanding the time frame will help you comprehend the question, so pay attention to these groupings to make sure your head is in the right era. #2: Use Process of Elimination The US History SAT Subject Test deducts 1/4 of a point for every wrong answer, so you want to be strategic in how you answer the questions. If you can eliminate even one answer as incorrect, then I would recommend making your best educated guess. Even if your mind goes blank after reading a question, you can generally apply your knowledge to eliminate wrong answers. While they are designed to all sound plausible, keep a sharp eye and look for "distractors" or answer choices that are irrelevant to the time period or content at hand. #3: Take Time to Comprehend the Question On a similar note, you want to make sure you really comprehend what the question is asking. Look for key words like EXCEPT or NOT, as well as superlatives like best, worst, all, none, always, or never. As you get better with time management, you'll be able to quickly get to the root of a question and its accompanying answer choices. Finally, now that you know where to find practice materials, how to use them, and these test-taking strategies, when exactly should you take the US History Subject Test? When to Take the US History Subject Test The SAT US History Subject test is offered in August, October, November, December, May, and June, and the College Board recommends that you have at least a year of a college prep US History class before taking the exam. If you're taking AP US History, then you should be well prepared to take the test at the end of the year, and can combine your studying for both the AP test and the SAT. However, you can definitely do well even if you haven't taken AP. It's best to take the test at the end of the school year. Remember, you can't take the Subject Tests on the same day as the SAT, but you can take up to three Subject Tests on one test date. My recommendation for US History would be the June test date. You can read more about out other considerations for when to take the SAT Subject Tests and the full list of test dates here. By keeping up in class, identifying and filling in your knowledge gaps, and prepping with practice questions, you'll be well prepared to conquer the US History Subject Test. What's Next? What's a good score for an SAT Subject Test? Actually, that depends on the Subject Test. Read about the good scores for each one here, along with what you need to know to get ahead of the curve. Want to learn more about specific US History topics? We have discussions of Ida Lewis, the Platt Amendment, checks and balances, and how the executive branch checks the judicial branch. For some quirkier topics, check out our articles about the histories of the 3-hole punch and hip hop and the story of the Loomis Fargo heist. Are you also prepping for the SAT? Use these free official SAT practice tests as you get ready for the test. Need a little extra help prepping for your Subject Tests? We have the industry's leading SAT Subject Test prep programs (for all non-language Subject Tests). Built by Harvard grads and SAT Subject Test full or 99th %ile scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so that you get the most effective prep possible. Learn more about our Subject Test products below:

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

International economics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

International economics - Assignment Example 4. A debtor nation is that which has a negative balance of trade owing to numerous debts owed to international financial institutions while a creditor nation is that which has a positive balance of trade. Entries like exports, loan receipts and investments constitute surplus, hence indicate creditor status while those entries like amount expenditure, are considered deficits and indicate a debtor status (Becker 123). 5. Exchange rate refers to the market rates at which a given currency trades in relation to others. Depreciation refers to the decrease in a country’s exchange rate while appreciation is the decrease in a country’s exchange rate. Arbitrage is the systematic purchase of a good or service from one location at a very low price, and selling it in another location at an exceedingly high price. In exchange markets, arbitrage is used by traders by exploiting weaknesses in computerized systems to make quick profits (Becker 123). 6. Purchasing parity refers to a system normally used in determining various currency values in relation to others. Purchasing power parity would hold when the price of commodities were equal in all countries (Becker 223). A free market economy where goods enter and leave borders may make purchasing parity a good estimate of a country’s currency. 7. The following shows how exchange rate growth is closely connected to differences in money growth, and real output growth across countries whereby the growth of real output leads to a money growth, which subsequently leads to increase in the exchange rate 1. The supply curve is upward sloping since the increase in the supply of Canadian dollars leads to an increase in the value of Icelandic Krona. This may arise due to increased inflation in Canada and poor monetary economic policies. 9. The above graph shows that an increase in the Canadian dollar value leads to a corresponding decrease in the value of the Icelandic Krona. This may take place due to an increased demand